The package uGMAR contains tools to estimate and work with univariate Gaussian Mixture Autoregressive (GMAR), Student’s t Mixture Autoregressive (StMAR) and Gaussian and Student’s t Mixture Autoregressive (G-StMAR) models. It supports applying general linear constraints to the autoregressive parameters, which enables to consider some other models as well. Besides most likelihood estimation, uGMAR also provides functions for model diagnostics and forecasting for example.

All the functions in uGMAR require the user to specify the order of AR coefficients \(p\) and the number of mixture components \(M\). For G-StMAR model one has to define the number of GMAR-type components \(M1\) and the number of StMAR-type components \(M2\), and it hence has total of \(M1+M2=M\) components. Other important argument regarding the functions in uGMAR is the parameter vector of the model. The form of the parameter vector to work with will depend on specifics of the model: is GMAR, StMAR or G-StMAR model considered, are all the AR coefficients restricted to be the same for all regimes and/or are general linear constraints applied to the model? It’s vital to use the correct type of parameter vector accordingly.

The parameter vector for regular **GMAR** model is size \((M(p+3)-1)x1\) vector of form \[\boldsymbol{\theta}=(\boldsymbol{\upsilon_{1}},...,\boldsymbol{\upsilon_{M}}, \alpha_{1},...,\alpha_{M-1}),\quad where\] \[\boldsymbol{\upsilon_{m}}=(\phi_{m,0},\boldsymbol{\phi_{m}}, \sigma_{m}^2) \enspace and \enspace \boldsymbol{\phi_{m}}=(\phi_{m,1},...,\phi_{m,p}) ,\quad m=1,...,M.\] Symbol \(\phi\) denotes an AR coefficient, \(\sigma^2\) component variance and \(\alpha\) a mixing weight parameter.

In order work with StMAR model, the parameter vector has to be expanded with degrees of freedom parameters. Consequently the parameter vector for regular **StMAR** model is size \((M(p+4)-1)x1\) vector of form \[(\boldsymbol{\theta}, \boldsymbol{\nu}),\quad where \quad \boldsymbol{\nu}=(\nu_{1},...,\nu_{M})\] denotes the degrees of freedom parameters and parameter \(\boldsymbol{\theta}\) is as in the case of GMAR model. To ensure the existance of finite second moments the degrees of freedom parameters \(\nu_{m}\) are assumed to be larger than \(2\).

If you wish work with StMAR model, be sure to set `StMAR=TRUE`

in the function’s arguments.

In the G-StMAR model the first M1 components are GMAR-type and the rest M2 components are StMAR-type. The parameter vector of G-StMAR model is similar to the one of StMAR model, with \(M2\) degrees of freedom parameters for the StMAR-components. That is, a size \((M(p+3)+M2-1)x1\) vector of form \[(\boldsymbol{\theta}, \boldsymbol{\nu}),\quad where \quad \boldsymbol{\nu}=(\nu_{M1+1},...,\nu_{M})\] denotes the degrees of freedom parameters and parameter \(\boldsymbol{\theta}\) is as in the case of GMAR model. As in the StMAR case, the degrees of freedom parameters are assumed to be larger than two, and one needs to set `G-StMAR=TRUE`

in the function’s arguments in order to consider the G-StMAR model.

Besides the regular \(GMAR\), \(StMAR\) and \(G-StMAR\) models, this package gives an option to work with restricted models. This means that the AR coefficients \(\phi_{m,1},...,\phi_{m,p}\) are restricted to be the same for all regimes \(m=1,..,M.\) Structure of the parameter vector is different for restricted and non-restricted models.

The parameter vector for **restricted GMAR** model is size \((3M-p+1)x1\) vector of form \[\boldsymbol{\theta}=(\phi_{1,0},...,\phi_{M,0},\boldsymbol{\phi},\sigma_{1}^2,...,\sigma_{M}^2,\alpha_{1},...,\alpha_{M-1}), \quad where \quad \boldsymbol{\phi}=(\phi_{1},...,\phi_{p}).\]

The parameter vector for **restricted StMAR** model is then defined by adding the degrees of freedom parameters, yielding size \((4M-p+1)x1\) vector of form \[(\boldsymbol{\theta}, \boldsymbol{\nu}),\quad where \quad \boldsymbol{\nu}=(\nu_{1},...,\nu_{M})\] again denotes the degrees of freedom parameters and parameter \(\boldsymbol{\theta}\) is as in the case of GMAR model.

The parameter vector for **restricted G-StMAR** model is similar to the StMAR model’s one, but with \(M2\) degrees of freedom parameters for the StMAR components.

So you will have to work with different kind of parameter vectors depending on wether you work with restricted or non-restricted model. The functions in uGMAR work with the regular non-restricted GMAR model by default. If you want to work with restricted models instead, it’s vital to set `restricted=TRUE`

in the function’s arguments and make sure to use the parameter vector specified for restricted models.

This packages makes it easy to apply linear constraints to the autoregressive parameters of GMAR, StMAR and G-StMAR models. uGMAR considers constraints of form \[\boldsymbol{\phi_{m}}=\boldsymbol{R_{m}\psi_{m}}, \enspace m=1,...,M,\] where \(\boldsymbol{R_{m}}\) is known size \((pxq_{m})\) constraint matrix of full column rank and \(\boldsymbol{\psi_{m}}\) is size \((q_{m}x1)\) parameter vector.

A special case of this is to constrain some of the AR coefficients to be zero. Another special case is the mixture version of Heterogenious Autoregressive (HAR) model, which can be obtained by setting \[\boldsymbol{R_{m}}=\left[{\begin{array}{ccc} \boldsymbol{\iota}_{5} & \frac{1}{5}\boldsymbol{1}_{5} & \frac{1}{22}\boldsymbol{1}_{5} \\ 0_{17} & 0_{17} & \frac{1}{22}\boldsymbol{1}_{17} \\ \end{array}}\right],\] where \(\boldsymbol{\iota}_{5}=[1,0,0,0,0]'\) for all regimes \(m=1,...,M\) and applying the constraints to GMAR(22,M) model.

In order to apply linear constraints in uGMAR, you simply parametrize the model with vectors \(\boldsymbol{\psi_{m}}\) instead of \(\boldsymbol{\phi_{m}}\) and provide the constraint matrices \(\boldsymbol{R_{m}}\). And remember to set `constraints=TRUE`

in the function’s arguments. Note that despite the lengths of \(\boldsymbol{\psi_{m}}\) the nominal order of AR coefficients is always \(p\) for all regimes.

Similarly as in the case of regular GMAR model, the parameter vector for **constrained GMAR** model is of form \[\boldsymbol{\theta}=(\boldsymbol{\upsilon_{1}},...,\boldsymbol{\upsilon_{M}}, \alpha_{1},...,\alpha_{M-1}),\] but now the vectors \(\boldsymbol{\upsilon_{m}}\) are defined by using vectors \(\boldsymbol{\psi_{m}}\), that is \[\boldsymbol{\upsilon_{m}}=(\phi_{m,0},\boldsymbol{\psi_{m}}, \sigma_{m}^2) \enspace and \enspace \boldsymbol{\psi_{m}}=(\psi_{m,1},...,\psi_{m,q_{m}}), \enspace m=1,...,M.\] The user has to also provide a list of constraint matrices \(\boldsymbol{R_{m}}\) that satisfy \(\boldsymbol{\phi_{m}}=\boldsymbol{R_{m}\psi_{m}}\) for all \(m=1,...,M.\)

The parameter vector for **constrained StMAR** model is again defined by simply adding the degrees of freedom parameters, that is \[(\boldsymbol{\theta}, \boldsymbol{\nu}),\quad where \quad \boldsymbol{\nu}=(\nu_{1},...,\nu_{M}),\] and \(\boldsymbol{\theta}\) is as in the case of constrained GMAR model.

The parameter vector for **constrained G-StMAR** model is similar to the one of constrained StMAR model, but with degrees of freedom parameters for the StMAR components only.

Just as for non-restricted models, the parameter vectors for constrained versions of restricted GMAR, StMAR and G-StMAR models are defined by simply replacing vector \(\boldsymbol{\phi}\) with vector \(\boldsymbol{\psi}\). Hence the parameter vector for **restricted and constrained GMAR** model is of form \[\boldsymbol{\theta}=(\phi_{1,0},...,\phi_{M,0},\boldsymbol{\psi},\sigma_{1}^2,...,\sigma_{M}^2,\alpha_{1},...,\alpha_{M-1}), \quad where \quad \boldsymbol{\psi}=(\psi_{1},...,\psi_{p}).\] The user has to also provide a constraint matrix \(\boldsymbol{R}\) that satisfies \(\boldsymbol{\phi}=\boldsymbol{R\psi}.\)

The parameter vector for **restricted and constrained StMAR** model is then again defined by adding the degrees of freedom parameters, that is \((\boldsymbol{\theta}, \boldsymbol{\nu})\) where \(\boldsymbol{\nu}=(\nu_{1},...,\nu_{M}).\) For **restricted and constrained G-StMAR** model the parameter vector is similar to the one of restricted and constrained StMAR model, but with degrees of freedom parameters for the StMAR components only.

I thought it would be helpful to make a short list of the most important functions in uGMAR and explain briefly what they do.

Probably the most imporant function in this package is `fitGMAR`

, which is used to estimate a GMAR, StMAR or G-StMAR model.

The maximum likelihood estimation process is done in two phases. In the first phase `fitGMAR`

uses genetic algorithm to find starting values for gradient based quasi-Newton method, which it then uses in the second phase for final estimations. There is also an option to perform some quantile residual tests for the estimated model to get a quick sense how the model fits to the data.

By default `fitGMAR`

takes use of parallel computing and will perform multiple estimations rounds. Because of multimodality of the log-likelihood function and the randomness associated with the genetic algorithm, it’s expected that some of the estimation rounds may end up in different (local) maximum points. The user should always keep in mind that this function cannot verify whether the found estimates denote the global maximum point or just a local one. A number of estimation rounds is usually required in order to find the most likelihood estimates, and reliability of the results can be increased by increasing the number of estimation rounds. If you wish to see a progress bar during parallel computing, install the suggested package “pbapply”.

The function `fitGMAR`

will return a list containing the estimates, their approximate standard errors, quantile residuals, mixing weights, results from all estimation rounds and lots of other useful stuff.

The function `quantileResidualTests`

performs quantile residual tests for the specified GMAR, StMAR or G-StMAR model, testing normality, autocorrelation and conditional heteroscedasticity. The tests are based on the paper by *Kalliovirta (2012)*.

`quantileResidualTests`

returns a list of data frames containing the test results for `$normality`

, `$autocorrelation`

and `$cond.heteroscedasticity`

of the quantile residuals. Consider installing the suggested package “gsl” for much faster evaluations of quantile residuals in the cases of StMAR and G-StMAR models.

The function `plotGMAR`

is designed to give an easy access to graphical quantile residual based model diagnostics.

It plots quantile residual time series, QQ-plot, autocorrelation function and squared quantile residual autocorrelation function. There is also an option to plot the individual statistics associated with the quantile residual tests with their approximate 95% critical bounds. Be warned that calculating the critical bounds will take a while. However if it takes too long for StMAR and G-StMAR models, make sure that you have succesfully installed the suggested package “gsl” (it’s not imported because in my experience it might be tricky to install it on some machines).

The function `simulateGMAR`

can be used to simulate values from a specified GMAR, StMAR or G-StMAR process.

By default `simulateGMAR`

will simulate initial values from the process’s stationary distribution, but you can set your own inital values you wish to. `simulateGMAR`

will return a list containing the simulated sample, information which component model was used to generate which sample and the corresponding mixing weights.

The function `forecastGMAR`

is used to forecast a specified GMAR, StMAR or G-StMAR process by simulation. It uses the given data to simulate the process’s possible future values and will then base the prediction on the sample median (or mean if set `useMean=TRUE`

) and confidence intervals on the empirical fractiles.

By default `forecastGMAR`

will then plot the prediction and the confidence intervals along with the data. Note that if the data is in the form of univariate time series object, the plots will take advantage of the timespan and frequency provided. `forecastGMAR`

will return a data frame containing the prediction and confidence intervals.

- Kalliovirta L., Meitz M. and Saikkonen P. (2015) Gaussian Mixture Autoregressive model for univariate time series.
*Journal of Time Series Analysis*,**36**, 247-266. - Kalliovirta L. (2012) Misspecification tests based on quantile residuals.
*The Econometrics Journal*,**15**, 358-393. - References regarding StMAR and G-StMAR models will be updated after they are published.